The pair batted throughout the afternoon session when the ball stopped jagging around, compiling by far India's best partnership of the series until Rahane was snapped up after tea for 81 by Stuart Broad, courtesy of Alastair Cook's dazzling left-handed slip catch. While Ganguly had made the runs in 28 Test matches, Kohli took just 19 Tests to achieve the milestone.
For the 45th consecutive Test, they tinkered with their team - including fit-again pace bowler Jasprit Bumrah, giving a debut to 20-year-old wicketkeeper Rishabh Pant and recalling opener Shikhar Dhawan.
Dahwan takes a single off the first ball. OUT.
Things looked to be going smoothly despite these twin blows before Pujara's indiscretion could have cost India dearly but Kohli and Rahane were equal to the task. India were outclassed by England twice - by 31 runs in Edgbaston and innings and 159-runs at Lord's.
It took the introduction of Woakes, man of the match at Lord's, to improve England's morning.
Indian skipper Virat Kohli once again guided his side from the front as visitors put up 307 runs for the loss of six wickets till stumps on the first day of the third Test match.
There was no such doubt when Rahul then caught Ben Stokes and cupped his ear to elements of a Trent Bridge crowd that had booed him for rightly claiming the dismissal of Root.
India's captain Virat Kohli reacts as he leaves the pitch.More news: 99-million-year-old beetle discovered trapped in amber
Buttler smashed Shami's next three balls for boundaries and passed 1,000 Test runs before holing out off Bumrah to end a 33-run last-wicket stand with Anderson (1no) as England shipped 10 wickets in a session for the second time this year following their 58 all out in New Zealand in March.
Watch day three of the third Test between England and India, from Trent Bridge, live on Sky Sports Cricket (channel 404) and Sky Sports Main Event (channel 401) from 10.30am on Monday.
Chris Broad struck first with the wicket of Rishabh Pant followed by R Ashwin and from there on, James Anderson prevented the tailenders from touching the 350-mark.
"When you see a team dominate like England did at Lord's you get a bit bored but today has been a proper contest". A high-quality spell of sustained in-swing from both Ishant and Bumrah continued, with Joe Root and Jonny Bairstow hurried onto the back foot.
"Tomorrow, though, England could go bang, bang, bang and get them out for 340 and you think that's about par".
This is India's highest score against England in England after being asked to bat.
The first day's play will start at 11 am local time and 3:30 pm IST.