The partnership is a significant strategic play against JD.com's biggest rival Alibaba, which has already embarked on an aggressive expansion strategy across Southeast Asia, Europe and the US.
The deal also provides Google with a stronger foothold in the China market and builds on the search giant's existing relationship with Tencent.More news: Queen Elizabeth steps in to save Meghan Markle’s awkward moment
Google will receive 27.1 million newly issued JD.com Class A ordinary shares as part of the deal. JD.com touts its "retail as a service" offering, selling its technology and and infrastructure to other retailers.
Google is stepping up its investments across Asia, where a rapidly growing middle class and a lack of infrastructure in retail, finance and other areas have made it a battleground for USA and Chinese internet heavyweights.
For JD.com, the Google deal shows its determination to build a set of global alliances as it seeks to counter Alibaba, which has been more focused on forging domestic retail tie-ups.
In this case, it appears that the greatest value within the partnership is the data that Google can bring to help JD.com grow outside of China.