Specialists said the study was a messenger without bounds of diabetes mind yet changes to treatment would not be quick.
The disease is now classified by doctors in two forms, either type one or type two.
The authors identified one autoimmune type of diabetes (condition in which the body produced chemicals that destroyed insulin) and four distinct subtypes of type 2 diabetes.
The growing concern of type-2 diabetes needs no introduction - so, identifying a drug that is already in circulation that might help to fight the condition would be a welcome discovery.
Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is incredibly common and accounts for 80-90 per cent of all cases of the disease.
Cluster 2 had the highest risk of retinopathy, which can cause blindness.
The researchers at Lund University Diabetes Centre in Sweden and the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland examined 14,775 patients and their blood, conducting detailed analyses. The report comes from Emma Ahlqvist, PhD, of Lund University in Sweden, and her team and is published in the latest issue of the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.
Currently, diabetes is classified based mainly on age of diagnosis (younger people often have type 1) and on the presence or absence of antibodies that attack beta cells, which release insulin.More news: Williamson's heroics fall short for Black Caps
Diabetes is now divided into two major groups - Type-1 diabetes which accounts for around 10 per cent of the cases and Type-2 diabetes which accounts for 85-90 per cent of the cases. It hits young people whose bodies struggle to produce insulin, but the immune system is not at fault.
Cluster 4: Mild obesity-related diabetes.
They noted this method of clustering diabetes type could be easily applied to patients in clinic and trials alike.
The researchers later repeated the analysis in three studies from Sweden and Finland.
The risk of diabetes varies significantly in people around the world, while this study only looked at Scandinavians. This suggests that more studies are needed to confirm that the anti-diabetic effects observed are exclusively caused by lefluonamide's effect on the insulin receptor.
Given the complex genetic and environmental factors that can affect the onset of diabetes and are still not well understood, some scientists predict that these "clusters" could grow, eventually allowing diagnoses' and treatment plans to become ever more accurate and effective.
The researchers are also planning to launch similar studies in China and India with people of different ethnic backgrounds.
Mild age-related diabetes (MARD): people were generally older than those in other clusters and had only mild problems with glucose control, similar to MOD.
The findings could help doctors provide diabetes patients with tailored treatment programs - also called "precision medicine" - and help explain why some patients respond to medications differently. The clusters and associated complications will need to be verified in other populations, including other ethnicities that may have a different risk of diabetes, such as Asian populations.