Corker, who is not seeking re-election, responded with a stunning observation about the White House given its resident's penchant for Twitter outbursts outside of normal business hours. "Someone obviously missed their shift this morning", Corker tweeted, implying the president is immature and in need of adult supervision.
He wrote on Twitter, "An adult day care center whose chief resident can't count to 51..." "I said "NO" and he dropped out (said he could not win without my endorsement)", Trump said in a series of tweets.
On the deal between Iran and six major nations including the U.S. that restricts Tehran's pursuit of nuclear weapons, he is an important and supportive voice. The president also contended that Corker "didn't have the guts to run" for a third term.
Mr Corker, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, has been more critical of Mr Trump in recent months, including over the handling of an August white supremacist demonstration in Charlottesville in Virginia.
"He also wanted to be Secretary of State, I said "NO THANKS".
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Mr Trump has long criticised the 2015 global nuclear pact, a signature foreign policy achievement of former president Barack Obama in which Iran agreed to reduce its nuclear program in exchange for easing of sanctions. Trump tweeted this morning.
Even for a president who rarely allows any slight to go unanswered, Trump's outburst was an extraordinary show of hostility aimed at a well-respected senator.
At the time, Corker said Trump hadn't "demonstrated that he understands the character of this nation". A comment that Trump said was "strange".
It was reported this week that President Trump will not rectify the deal, against the wishes of many senior advisers.
"Thin-skinned, vindictive - all of those things that we saw during the campaign that for whatever reason the conservative movement chose to embrace, enable, or rationalize - now we are seeing it playing out in the White House", he continued. The president has previously tangled with other Republican senators, including Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and John McCain and Jeff Flake of Arizona. "I think it's going to be fun to work with him, especially now that he's not running for re-election, because I think it sort of unleashes him to do whatever ― and say whatever ― he wants to say".