It shows the black woman peeling off her t-shirt and revealing a white woman underneath her skin.
Makeup artist, Naomi Blake (Naythemua), reposted the image, which has since gone viral.
But someone posting under the name Raenette Johnson said, "For people to say black woman are reaching and being sensitive lemme break this down".
Dove later apologised for the ad claiming it had "missed the mark". "We apologize deeply and sincerely for the offense that it has caused and do not condone any activity or imagery that insults any audience".More news: Netflix prices to go up for new and current subscribers
Dove also issued a longer statement on Facebook, adding that it is "committed to representing the beauty of diversity".
"What exactly were yall going for?"
"What does America tell bBack people ... that we are judged by the color of our skin and that includes what is considered handsome in this country", she wrote. "Your creative director should be fired", Angela Reinders wrote on Facebook.
"The third woman is definitely not white but this was a bad deliverance of the message that all can use the soap", posted another.
Dove has since removed the ad. In 2011, the brand's before-and-after advert charted the transition of a black woman to a white woman after using its body wash.
Dove said in a statement to Gawker, "All three women are meant to demonstrate the "after" product benefit".